Motherboard Expansion Slots and Bus Speeds CompTIA A 220801 12
If you've ever looked at a motherboard in detail, it looks like a city that you would see if you were flying over in an airplane from 30,000 feet.There's a whole set of pathways and routes, just like you would have streets going through.There's quite a lot of interactions between all of these different components on the motherboard.You will also see that there's a lot of places where the traffic will flow between adapter cards and maybe flowing up to a northbridge or a southbridge.And all of these separate, independent.
Pathways are there.It's difficult to see in this picture.But if you look very close at a motherboard, you'll see all these little traces on the motherboard where all of that data is flowing.You also have the option on these motherboards to be able to expand the capabilities.There are expansion slots built right into the motherboard.So if you wanted to add additional interfaces, some additional tutorial options, you can do that right with the existing hardware that you own in that motherboard.If you look at that motherboard carefully, you can.
See the bus that's on the motherboard itself.Sometimes these are a lot of tiny little roads, these tiny little traces.Sometimes it's many traces that are on the motherboard itself.And as we see in older motherboards, the wider the bus gave us more bandwidth.Well, that's not necessarily the case any longer and we'll talk about that in this tutorial.We'll often refer to the clock speed of the bus.That refers to how much data is passing by every second or every time we have a clock cycle inside of that computer.
And you can see that the expansion bus itself, it has its own clock.It's not required to run at the same speed of the cpu.If we were to look at the specifications of a computer, we normally will see a clock speed associated with the speed of that pc.And that's usually referring to the speed of the cpu that's on the motherboard.But there are a lot of different speeds that are occurring on that motherboard.The expansion bus itself has its own clock.It doesn't run at the same speed as the cpu.
You'll notice that the numbers of these speeds will be called mhz or ghz.That's standing for megahertz and gigahertz.If it is 1 megahertz, that is one million cycles per second.A hertz being one cycle per second, therefore a megahertz is a million cycles per second.And obviously, a gigahertz is 1,000 megahertz.So as we look at these numbers and try to decipher just how fast something is running, we need to understand how fast it's running in hertz, so that we can make comparisons to other systems or other computers.
Another important consideration is that the speed of the bus does not necessarily correlate back to exactly how much data we're putting across that connection.In many cases, we can put a lot of data over a connection over one single clock cycle.If you look at something like memory, it's a good example of that.Something like ddr3 transfers data at 64 times the rate of the memory clock.That's because it's able to transfer data in different ways for a single clock across that link.That provides a lot of efficiencies.
So when we're looking at the bus itself and the speed of the clock of the bus, don't think that the speed itself limits the amount of data.In some cases, we can put a lot of data across that bus in one single clock cycle.If we were to look at the architecture of a computer, our adapter slots would be out here connected to what we call the southbridge.This is usually where we are plugging in these expansion connections.The main processing of the computer takes place at the.
Cpu of course.And it's the northbridge that connects all of this higher speed communication, for instance between the memory and the cpu.The other systems that we're plugging in for our interfaces or perhaps other connections are almost always happening down here on these pci adapter slots.Some differences to this might be something like a graphics adapter slot.If you have a pci express or an agp slot, it may connect directly to the northbridge.So there is this separation inside of the computer where most of the time our slower devices are connected to our.
Southbridge and the highspeed devices are connected to the northbridge.It's pretty obvious when you look at a motherboard where the expansion slots are.There's these long slots that we built so that we're able to add different capabilities.It makes it very simple.If we wanted to plug in an adapter card, we find one that matches.This happens to be a 64bit adapter card, into this pci slot.We line it up with the connectors on the slot.And we push it right into the slot so that it goes all the.
Way in, so that almost none of those copper connectors are visible.When you have it in there, you'll see that it goes in almost completely into that connection.So it's very simple.You power off your computer.You plug in whatever expansion you would like.You power it back on.And now, you have additional capabilities available, all by adding different connectors into those slots.Pci stands for peripheral component interconnect.That's a mouthful.That's why we almost always call it a pci slot.It was created in 1994.It's been around a long time.
And it's so standardized that even the newest motherboards tend to put one or two pci slots on there just so it's backward compatible with your older adapter cards.You'll find those 32bit and 64bit versions of the pci slot.And depending on what version of pci happens to be running on your motherboard, you'll have different kinds of throughput.For instance, a 133 megabytes per second is one that you will see on a 32bit pci slot that's running at 33 megahertz.The highest will be 533 megabytes per second.
And you're only going to get that if you're running with the 64bit pci card at the higher clock rate of 66 megahertz.A 32bit pci bus is one where we have expansion slots.We would plug in our adapter cards.And they're connecting over this 32bit bus to the southbridge.If this was a 64bit pci connection, it has twice as many connections going between a much larger expansion slot and also connecting back to the southbridge.Here's a picture of the pci slot.You can see the 32bit pci slot is much shorter than the.
64bit pci slot that you'll find.It has all these little keys on it as well.Notice that each slot is very different looking.And that's because there are these little sections on the card, these notches that are on the adapter card itself, that both designate the size of the card, along with what voltages are required to use that particular adapter card.You can see this card has a notch at the 3.3v and the 5v position.And if either of those voltages are available on your motherboard, this particular card will take.
Advantage of them.The 64bit expansion card, much longer you can see.There's a notch in it that designates where that's 64bit happens to be.This is another adapter card that will work in both 3.3v and 5v.But if your motherboard doesn't support one of those voltages, that key space won't be available and you won't be able to push that card into the motherboard.As we became more mobile, we needed a way to take the same functionality as pci and shrink it down for our mobile devices.So a new standard was created called mini pci.
This had the same type of signaling, the same type of capabilities as pci, but it put it into a very, very small form factor that worked perfectly for laptops.So we could add a wifi card, a mobile broadband card, and put it right into the laptop itself, but using a same standard as something that we were very comfortable with, with the pci format.Unfortunately, when you plug these into the laptops, they are inside under the covers of the laptop.So unlike a where you could plug into an interface on a.
Pci adapter card, these particular adapter cards are inside of your laptop.You really don't have access to it once you install it into the system.Here's an example of what i mean by that.This is a mini pci card.This is a wifi card that we put inside of a laptop.The cover has been removed.And it's one that gives you access.You can snap it into the slot and then put the cover right on top of it.You see there's a modem connection here.There's a slot for some additional memory if you.
Wanted to put it into this laptop.Once you install the card, and this one happens to need an interface for an antenna, so we'll plug in the antenna connection to this.And now, we've got this entire system ready to go for this intel wireless card.We put the cover back on.And now when we start up our operating system, we have a brand new wireless card available for us.One of the things we found with pci is as the years went on, it became much harder to get higher throughputs through.
Those particular legacy interfaces.So we created an update to the pci called the pcix.That stands for pci extended.We really created this for servers that needed a lot of throughput.And they really got a lot of bandwidth out of this update.They were able to get four times the clock speed.It had a lot of abilities to plug in gigabyte ethernet cards or highspeed storage.And you can see that the capacity, the throughput of these devices, went up to 1,064 megabytes per second.Now, keep in mind this pcix does not.
Stand for pci express.That's a completely different format using a completely different method of communication.Pcix stands for pci extended, which is simply a newer version, an updated version of the pci standard.On newer motherboards these days, you're going to find pci express slots.You'll see that abbreviated as pcie, with a lowercase e.It's important to delineate the difference between that pcix format and the newer and certainly much more common, pci express.If you look at a new motherboard these days, they almost always are going to be primarily a pci express bus.
That you'll see on that device.You will also see this abbreviated as pcie with that lowercase e.This is not the pcix for the abbreviation.Pci express is pcie.Pci express also is not that traditional 32 or 64bit wide bus.With pci express, we're using a serial communication to send traffic in both directions.We call these lanes.What's nice about this is that we can plug in a very slow pci express card and we can plug in a very high speed pci express card and they're using their own lanes to.
Communicate.In the older pci style, if you plugged in a slower card, the entire bus had to slow down to that speed.We don't have that problem with pci express.You'll see the size of these adapter connections for pci express as 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 full duplex lanes.And you'll see them written as x1, x2, x4.And the x here is pronounced by.So you'll see a by 1, a by 4, a by 16, and a lot of different interfaces.And they all have different sizes as well.
Sometimes it's very easy to pick out the difference between a by 1 interface and a by 16 interface.Pci express doesn't have all of those separate wires and a parallel communication.It's simply has a single lane.So a express by 1 slot is going to have a connection up to the northbridge.Because we're using a much faster communication here, we generally connect to the northbridge.And there's another lane on the way back.So this is a full duplex communication, going back and forth to that northbridge.If we need more throughput, let's say we're putting in an.
Adapter card or a device that needs more speed, we can simply plug it into a slot that has got more connections, more lanes of communication.So a by 4 slot is going to have four of those full duplex lanes between the interface card and the northbridge.Through the years, there have been different versions of pci express that we've seen.And you'll need to look at your motherboard to determine what version of pci express it happens to be using.If we wanted to compare the different speeds between those.
Different versions, you can see that version 1.X had 250 megabyte per second lanes in each direction.When we got to pci express version 2.X, it doubled the speed up to 500 megabytes.Per second.Although you don't see it very often, there is a standard version 3.0 and it has the capability of sending 1 gigabyte per second in either direction.And there is currently under way work for version 4.0.And it is said to increase the speed up to 2 gigabytes per second in both direction, when you're working in a pci.
Express environment.When you look at a motherboard that has pci express slots, you'll see different sizes of the slots depending on the number of lanes they're using.This motherboard also has some of the legacy pci connectors.And here's a pci express by 16 slot.Here's another by 16 slot.You can see they're very long, especially when you compare them to the pci by 1 slot.Those are relatively short, very small connections.You don't need a lot of real estate.There's only two lanes there that you're going to use,.
Really one lane, bidirectional.You've got that full duplex connection in that by 1 slot.If you were to look at the adapter cards for that, they match this.For instance, here's an adapter card that is a pci express by 1 adapter card.And you can see it doesn't take up a lot of room.That serial communication really allows you to very efficiently transfer information between the adapter card and the motherboard.Another legacy interface you might run into is the cnr.That stands for communications and networking riser.
This was created just so we could add additional network cards or additional modems into our computers.This is a very, very small interface.It's the small yellow interface here at the bottom.And it was designed just for this purpose.The idea being on most systems, you really didn't need very much.There's so much already integrated onto the motherboard, that we just need an additional slot that was able to perform these particular functions.Well these days of course, motherboards have almost everything included on them.So we don't often see a cnr slot on our modern.
Motherboards.Another legacy slot you might run into is the agp slot.This stands for accelerated graphics port.We almost always call it agp.And you'll see it written on the motherboard with the letters agp next to the slot itself.Before we had pci express, we needed some way to increase the throughput for our tutorial cards.There was a lot of gaming, a lot of highend graphics that was required.And agp was built just for that.So we were always able to plug in and get some additional.
Tutorial out of these agp slots.But now that pci express is around, we have much more bandwidth available.Almost all of the new tutorial cards that we see are using pci express as its slot.If you compared a pci card with agp, you'd see there's a lot more connectors on that agp card.There's a lot more throughput that we needed.Therefore, we needed more connectors to the motherboard.Many of these cards also have these notches on them that allow you to lock that particular card into a section.
Of the motherboard.That way if the workstation is jostled or moved, you can be assured that that card isn't accidentally going to pop out of the slot.As agp matured, we also got higher throughputs out of agp.The initial versions, version 1.0, which ran at 3.3 v, gave us what we call an agp 1x and 2x speeds that give the speeds up to 522 megabytes per second.The next version of agp, version 2.0, was a 1.5v version.But you can see, it was a 4x, which means we were able to.
Get 1.07 gigabytes per second out of that standard.And you can see, we doubled it again with agp 8x to 2.1 gigabytes per second.We were able to get a lot of throughput through that agp 8x.You can also see in that 3.0 version that we had an 0.8v as the standard on that bus.As time went on, we got very efficient with using the power on agp.And you can see as we went through the different versions, the bus requirements itself dropped from a 3.3v all.
The way down to 0.8v.Just like all of the other expansion slots, agp is very unique.You can't plug pci into agp and vice versa because of the format of the slot itself.And most of the time, you'll see on the motherboard that it specifically says that's an agp connection, so you can be very sure what your plugging into and how you're connecting to that motherboard.You can see there have been a lot of different interface types through the years.And all of these buses allowed us to improve the capabilities.
An Overview of PC Memory Types CompTIA A 220801 13
One of the key components inside of our computers is the memory.We're usually referring to memory as the random access memory, the amount of total ram storage that you might have for that computer.But there's all kinds of different memory inside of your computer.When we're commonly talking about memory, we're usually talking about the ram.But there may be occasions where we're talking about certain types of memory that aren't specifically associated with the ram types that we'll discuss in this tutorial.Another thing to keep in mind is your ram memory is not the.
Same as your hard drive storage or other storage device that you might have on your computer.Of course, we're using the same type of measurement system for those.We talk about our memory sticks being a 4 gig or an 8 gig memory stick.And we're talking about hard drive space also in gigabytes.So it's very common to mix those up, if you aren't exactly sure what you're talking about.But make sure when somebody says i have 8 gig in my computer, are they referring to how much memory they have.
In their computer or are they referring to some type of storage device inside of your computer sometimes people will use those interchangeably.And of course, those are very, very different things.Memory is so important in our computers because the only time you can perform a calculation on anything is if you get that into the memory of your computer.So it's very common for us to pull files off of our hard drive.And the only time we can execute them or perform any type of calculation is when we have it in active memory.
And we might perform some calculations.We might modify a graphics file.We might work on a spreadsheet.And then we will save that back to the hard drive for later.But the only time we can ever work with it, the only time we can ever execute a file, the only time we can run a program is when we have that information in the memory of your computer.One of the kinds of memory we often don't directly refer to is memory like readonly memory.This is very common to see when we are storing our bios.
Information for instance onto our computer.This bios is something that we generally don't change.And so it is a readonly memory in the way that we use it.Readonly memory has many different types that you would see in a computer.A very old type is a prom, a programmable readonly memory.That's one where we would program the chip itself.We would fasten it to the motherboard.And it's always going to have that particular code burned into that particular chip.There's also an eprom, which is one that is the same as a.
Prom, but we can erase it if we have the right equipment.We would remove that chip from the motherboard.We would replace it into our burning device.So we can put different types of information on that chip.And then we would replace it onto the motherboard.Again, you'd have to physically remove it from the motherboard generally to have that happen.In most of our computers today, especially when we're dealing with the bios configuration of our computer, we're talking about eeprom.This is electrically erasable programmable readonly memory.
And that is memory that we can simply take an application and change the contents of that memory just by running an application.It makes it very, very simple for us to upgrade the bios of our computer because we can do all of that without ever opening the case.When we talk about cpus and we talk about processors inside of our computer, we often refer to static ram.This is not readonly memory.And it's not the memory stick ram that we would put in our computer.This is a very, very specialized type of memory.
That is very, very fast.It's so fast that it's exactly what we would like to use in the calculation process inside of our processors.The problem is that this very, very fast memory is very, very expensive.Otherwise, we'd be using it for everything.We can only use a small part of it because of the costs involved with this static ram.It's also relatively large.We're looking at a cpu die right here.The static ram are these large sections where all of this looks very similar.It's like we're looking at something from a plane.
And every time you see these little fields of information, those are generally static ram sections.Usually it's a layer 1, a layer 2, a layer 3 cache that is right there on the cpu itself.The static ram is named static because we don't have to constantly refresh the contents of the memory for it to be available to us.As long as we have power to our computer, our static memory will keep whatever we put inside of it.It's still volatile memory.If we were power off our computer, anything within the.
Static ram goes away.But as long as we can change it and provide constant power to these chips, it will always maintain that information within the static ram.Whenever we're commonly talking about the memory inside of our computer, we're almost always talking about dynamic random access memory.This is dynamic memory because we constantly have to refresh this memory to maintain the information that's inside of it.If we were not going to refresh this data, it would ultimately disappear and completely wipe out everything that was inside of this memory.
That's a little different than the static memory we were just looking at, where you write it and as long as there's a constant power, it's always going to be there.That's not the case with dynamic memory.We always have to provide those updates.Otherwise, all of the information inside of it disappears.One type of dynamic random access memory is one called synchronous dynamic random access memory or sdram.Sdram is not static ram.We have an s in front of that.But the s in this case stands for synchronous dynamic random.
Access memory.It's synchronous because the memory itself is synchronized with the clock rate of the memory bus.We have to make sure those are synchronized together so that they stay in sync and we can constantly refresh and access all of the information that we need from inside of that memory.We don't see sdram on a lot of our modern systems.Generally, we see ddr type memory.We'll talk about that in a moment.But if you are going to acquire or replace some existing sdram inside of one of your computers, you'll.
Notice that the sdram is labeled with the same speed as your memory clock bus.So if you have a memory clock bust of a 133 megahertz clock, you're looking for sdram that is a pc133.And generally you'll see that on the package that you purchase.Sometimes the memory itself, like this one, actually has listed on it pc133.That way i know the sdram i have here is designed for a memory clock bus rate of 133 megahertz.As our computers matured through the years, we needed to make sure that the speed of our memory was keeping up with.
The faster and faster processors that were created.By the time the pentium iv came along, we were hitting the limits of what that traditional sdram was going to be able to do for us.So a third party called rambus created a new type of memory that could go much faster.And they partnered with intel so that you could create some motherboards that would require this rambus dynamic random access memory.The advantage of course is that this memory is much faster than the older sdram.One of the disadvantages of course is that because it was.
Created by a third party and a number of licensing requirements were there, that it was more expensive than traditional memory that we were using in the past.And so now you had a balancing act of needing to go faster, but this rambus memory also required additional money.And that was a balancing act that most people had to determine if it made sense for them.Not all systems use this rambus memory.And as you'll see in a moment, we evolved to have even faster memory types that were not created by the rambus.
Incorporated.Generally, our modern memory types are based on double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory.This ddr sdram is one that we see very, very commonly.The first one that we had come out was simply ddr ram.And we're going to talk about that in just a moment.It was able to go twice the rate of the older sdram, thus the double data rate associated with it.If we were to look at, for instance, a memory bus clock of 100 megahertz, we used what we called a bus clock.
Multiplier of 1.We multiply that by the clock rate.This is a dual rate memory, so we'd multiply it by 2.And then we'd multiply by 64 to represent the number of bits that you can transfer in a single cycle.And of course we wanted that represented as bytes, so we would divide it by the number of bits per byte.So that gives us this calculation of 12,800 divided by 8, which meant the total peak data rate for a 100 megahertz bus clock rate was 1,600 megabytes per second as.
A peak data rate.With the ddr memory, we would represent that as a pc1600.Notice now, that the representation of the memory model did not match the memory clock rate.So what we had was what i like to call a magic number.If we were to take the memory clock rate for ddr and multiply by 16, we would get the peak data rate.And conversely, if we had a pc1600 data rate and you were trying to determine what the original memory bus clock rate was, you could simply take that 1600 number and.
Divide it by 16.And ultimately, that would give you 100 megahertz.The next generation of ddr memory was called ddr2.This is the double data rate 2 sdram.And there were a number of enhancements associated with it.We had the ability to handle more interference.We had buffers built into this.There were drivers offchip.It was the next generation of ddr memory.It also was twice as fast.So we would take our original 100 megahertz bus clock rate notice that our bus clock multiplier changes to 2.
All of the numbers stay the same after that.A dual rate of 2, 64 bits transferred, and you divide everything by 8.So your total number is 25,600 divided by 8, which is a total peak data rate of 3,200 megabytes per second.Ddr2 memory is designated by pc2.It has that 2 right after it.And the 3,200 is referring to the peak data rate.The magic number here for ddr2 memory then would be the number 32.If we take that 100 megahertz and simply multiply it by 32,.
We can skip all of these other equations and we can simply come up with 3,200.And conversely, we can take 3,200, divide it by 32 and get our memory bus clock rate of 100 megahertz.The latest generation of ddr memory is ddr3.And as you can expect, it's twice the data rate of ddr2.We even have much larger modules that we can use in our computers today.The formula, very, very similar.The only thing you're really changing is the bus clock multiplier, which means you can take your 100 megahertz.
Memory clock rate.And once you do the equation, you come up with a peak data rate of 6,400 megabytes per second.And we can see here that we put a 3 on the end of the pc3 to designate that this is ddr3 memory and then our peak data rate of 6,400.That means that magic number that you can use, instead of going through that big set of equations, is that you can take the 100 megahertz clock rate and simply multiply it by 64 to come up with 6,400 megabytes per second as your.
Peak data rate.And of course, you can conversely do this by dividing 64 from your 6,400 peak data rate to give you 100 megahertz.So if you're given a question where you need to calculate either your peak data rate or you need to calculate the original memory bus clock rate of a particular set of ddr, ddr2, ddr3 memory, just remember your magic numbers.And you'll simply multiply or divide for the appropriate magic number of the memory type that you're using.Even though these types of memory are numbered ddr and.
Ddr2 and ddr3, you cannot use different types of memory on different motherboards.You can't take a ddr2 memory and use it on a motherboard that's designed for ddr3.Even if you try to do that, you'll notice that it doesn't fit onto the motherboard.So if you're moving memory around and you notice it's not quite going into the slot, there are these sections on the memory that are designed to fit right into a key that is on the memory slot itself.This ensures that when we are plugging memory in, that we're.
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